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National Definitions


Sistema informatico che gestisce e controlla entità fisiche in settori quali le infrastrutture civili, il settore aerospaziale, dei transporti, sanitario, energico e dei processi produttivi. [1]

A cyber-physical system (CPS) is defined as ICT and computer systems supporting, managing and supervising physical assets. [2]


Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS): A new generation of systems with integrated computational and physical capabilities that can interact with humans through many methods. [3]

United Kingdom (UK)

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are systems with integrated computational and physical components; ‘smart’ systems. [4]

Cyber-physical system (CPS): A system designed as an entity, or set of entities, with a specific purpose, or to meet a capability objective. [5] [6]

A CPS should include a computational aspect (cyber) and a physical aspect working together to accomplish a task or function. The cyber aspect has a controlling or influencing role over the physical parts of the system, for example, the automated steering of a ship to maintain a planned course or a complex environmental conditioning system for a port or pressure and flow control systems in a utility network.

United States

Cyber-Physical Systems or "smart" systems are co-engineered interacting networks of physical and computational components. [7]

These systems will provide the foundation of our critical infrastructure, form the basis of emerging and future smart services, and improve our quality of life in many areas.

Academic Definitions

Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are an emerging new category of interconnected real-time complex but controllable technical systems which incorporate both discrete symbolic computation and continuous physical processes in a sophisticated manner. [8]

Conceptually CPS deeply and widely embeds cyber in a mix of humans, hardware, infrastructure, and natural elements to sense, control, and actuate physical world behavior. The innovation of the technologies in the cyber part (control systems) plays a key role to bring intelligent and reliable behaviours of the whole system.

A cyber-physical system (CPS) is a system of collaborating computational elements controlling physical entities. [9]

A cyber-physical system (CPS) is an integration of computation with physical processes. [10]

A cyber-physical system (CPS) is a physical, biological or engineered system whose operations are integrated, monitored, and/or controlled by a computational core. [11]

Discussion Topic

See also