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European Definitions


A process by which a CBRN substance/material becomes available for absorption, swallowing, breathing, toughing the skin or eyes to humans. [1]

Exposure may be short term (acute exposure), medium-term or long-term (chronic exposure).


Exposure is the potential loss to an area due to the occurrence of an adverse event. [2]

RESIN project

The RESIN project [3] gives the following definition:

The presence of people, livelihoods, species or ecosystems, environmental services and resources, infrastructure, or economic, social, or cultural assets in places that could be adversely affected. [4]

Other International Definitions

United Nations

People, property, systems, or other elements present in hazard zones that are thereby subject to potential losses [5]. Measures of exposure can include the number of people or types of assets in an area. These can be combined with the specific vulnerability of the exposed elements to any particular hazard to estimate the quantitative risks associated with that hazard in the area of interest.


Exposure: The presence of people; livelihoods; environmental services and resources; infrastructure; or economic, social, or cultural assets in places that could be adversely affected. [6]


Exposure: People, property, systems, or other elements present in hazard zones that are thereby subject to potential losses. [7]

Enjeux: Personnes, biens, systèmes, ou autres éléments présents dans les zones de risque et qui sont ainsi soumis à des pertes potentielles. [8]

Подверженность угрозе: Люди, имущество, системы и другие элементы, находящиеся в зоне повышенной опасности, которые тем самым подвергаются потенциальной угрозе понести ущерб. [9]

Grado de Exposición: La población, las propiedades, los sistemas u otros elementos presentes en las zonas donde existen amenazas y, por consiguiente, están expuestos a experimentar pérdidas potenciales. [10]

التعرض: تواجد السكان والممتلكات والأنظمة والعناصر الأخرى في منطقة المخاطر، وتعرضهم بالتالي لحدوث خسائر محتملة. [11]

Keterpaparan: Penduduk, harta benda, sistem atau elemenelemen lain yang ada di zona-zona ancaman bahaya yang oleh karenanya berpotensi mengalami kerugian. [12]

Pendedahan: Orang awam, harta, sistem, atau elemen lain yang berada dalam zon bahaya, yang tertakluk kepada potensi kerugian. [13]

Pagkalantad sa mga Bantang Peligro/Panganib: Mga mamamayan, ariarian, sistema at iba pang elemento na nasa peligrosong lunan at sa gayo’y nakataya sa potensyal na mga pinsala. [14]

暴露 - 灾害易发地区的人员、基础设施、住房、生产能力和其他有形人力资产的状况。说明:对暴露的衡量可包括一个地区的人数或资产的种类。这些可以与暴露要 素对某种具体危害的特定脆弱性和能力相结合,以估计与该地区危害相关的量 化风险
广泛型灾害风险 - 严重程度低、频率高的危害事件和灾害的风险,主要但不限于与高度局部性的 危害相关。 [15]

[16] در معرض قرار گرفتن
مردم، دارايي ها، سيستم ها، و يا ساير عناصر و عوامل موجود در زون ها و محدوده هاي خطر كه موضوع و
تحت تاثير و در معرض آسيب هاي بالقوه مي باشد را اصطلاحا در معرض قرارگيري مي گويند.

National Definitions


Exposure: The degree to which a resource is open to, or attracts, harm. [17]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Izloženost: Ljudi, imovina, sistemi ili drugi elementi prisutni u zonama opasnosti koje su na aj način predmet potencijalnog gubitka. [18]

Cape Verde

Exposição: Pessoas, propriedade, sistemas ou outros elementos presentes em zonas perigosas que estão, assim, sujeitas a potenciais perdas. [19]

Medidas de exposição podem incluir o número de pessoas ou tipos de activos numa zona. Podem ser combinadas com a vulnerabilidade específica dos elementos expostos a qualquer risco particular para estimar os riscos quantitativos associados àquele perigo na zona em questão.

Czech Republic

Vystavení hrozbám: Možnost, že konkrétní útok využije specifickou zranitelnost systému zpracování dat. [20]

Exposure: possibility that a concrete attack would use a specific vulnerability of a data processing system. [21]


Altistuminen; altistus: joutuminen fysikaalisen, kemiallisen tai biologisen tekijän vaikutuksen alaiseksi.

Exposure is falling into the influence of a physical, chemical or biological factor. -unofficial translation- [22]


a. allgemein: Ausgesetztsein eins Schutzgutes gegenüber seinen Umgebungseinflüssen.
b. im Bereich Risikoanalyse: Ausgesetztsein eines Schutzgutes gegenüber einer Gefahr.[23]


Esposizione: È il numero di unità (o "valore") di ognuno degli elementi a rischio presenti in una data area, come le vite umane o gli insediamenti. [24]


Exposición: Acceso o contacto potencial con un agente o situación peligrosa; contacto del límite extremo de in organismo con agentes químicos, biológicos o físicos. [25]


Exposure: The nature and degree to which a system is exposed to significant climatic variations. [26]


Exposure: A threat action whereby sensitive data is directly released to an unauthorized entity. [27]


Exposición: La naturaleza y el grado al cual un sistema está expuesto a variaciones climáticas considerables (IPCC 2001). [28]


Exposure is the character, magnitude, and rate of change and variation in the climate. [29]


Exposición: Proximidad o contacto –o ambos- con una fuente de un agente causante de enfermedad, de tal manera que pueda tener lugar la transmisión efectiva de dicho agente o sus consecuencias. [30]

United States

(cyber) exposure is the condition of being unprotected, thereby allowing access to information or access to capabilities that an attacker can use to enter a system or network. [31]

Other Definitions


The extent and nature of changes in climate which systems face. [32]

Standard Definition

See also



  1. European Commission's CBRN Glossary, 2012
  2. ENISA Risk Glossary
  3. http://www.resin-cities.eu/
  4. Mach, K.J., S. Planton and C. von Stechow (eds.). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Annex II: Glossary. [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 117-130.
  5. 2009 UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction
  6. IPCC, 2012: Glossary of terms. In: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen, M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.). A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, pp. 555-564.
  7. 2009 UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction - English
  8. UNISDR glossary French
  9. UNISDR glossary Russian
  10. UNISDR glossary Spanish
  11. UNISDR glossary
  12. UNISDR glossary in Bahasa
  13. UNISDR glossary in Malay
  14. UNISDR glossary in Tagalog
  15. 2009 UNDRR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction in Chinese
  16. Internationally agreed glossary of basic terms related to Disaster Management in Farsi
  17. Protective Security Policy Framework - Glossary Oct 2017
  18. RADNA VERZIJA OSOBLJA KOMISIJE: Procjena rizika i mapiranje smernice za upravljanje katastrofama
  19. Avaliação das Necessidades Pós- Desastre (PDNA) ERUPÇÃO VULCÂNICA NO FOGO 2014-2015, Cape Verde
  20. Výkladový slovník kybernetické bezpečnosti (2013)
  21. Výkladový slovník kybernetické bezpečnosti (2013)
  22. Vocabulary of Comprehensive Security. Helsinki (TSK 47) (2014)
  23. Glossar, Das Bundesamt für Bevölkerungsschutz und Katastrophenhilfe (BBK)
  24. Dipartimento della Protezione Civile Glossario
  26. Climate Change and Community Based Adaptation Planning Training Manual, Government of Nepal (2015)
  27. Oman CERT Glossary
  28. Portal de Cambio Climático
  30. Glosario Mapama, government Spain
  31. DHS/NICSS Glossary
  32. Preparing for a Changing Climate: Second Consultation to Inform Scotland's Climate Change Adaptation Framework