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European Definitions

National Definitions


Sistema informatico che gestisce e controlla entità fisiche in settori quali le infrastrutture civili, il settore aerospaziale, dei transporti, sanitario, energico e dei processi produttivi. [1]

A cyber-physical system (CPS) is defined as ICT and computer systems supporting, managing and supervising physical assets. [2]

United Kingdom (UK)

Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are systems with integrated computational and physical components; ‘smart’ systems. [3]

United States

Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are an emerging new category of interconnected real-time complex but controllable technical systems which incorporate both discrete symbolic computation and continuous physical processes in a sophisticated manner. Conceptually CPS deeply and widely embeds cyber in a mix of humans, hardware, infrastructure, and natural elements to sense, control, and actuate physical world behaviour [4]. The innovation of the technologies in the cyber part (control systems) plays a key role to bring intelligent and reliable behaviours of the whole system.

The term Cyber-Physical System (CPS) was first coined by Helen Gill at the National Science Foundation in the U.S. for systems combining computation, networking and physical processes in 2006 [5]. Since then the research of CPS has received increasingly more attention from both academia and industry [6]. A typical CPS is illustrated below:

illustration of a CPS

See also



  1. Presidency of the Council of Ministers, National strategic framework for cyberspace security, Rome, Italy - Italian version (December 2013)
  2. Presidency of the Council of Ministers, National strategic framework for cyberspace security, Rome, Italy - English version (December 2013)
  3. National Cyber Security Strategy 2016, HM Government
  4. Poovendran, R., Sampigethaya, K., Gupta, S.K.S., et al. Special Issue on Cyber–Physical Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE 100, 1 (2012), 6-12.
  5. Lee, E. An Introductory Textbook on Cyber-Physical Systems. Proceedings 2010 Workshop on Embedded Systems Education (WESE 2010), (2010)
  6. NSF Funding Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). NSF, 2011.