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United States

Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are an emerging new category of interconnected real-time complex but controllable technical systems which incorporate both discrete symbolic computation and continuous physical processes in a sophisticated manner. Conceptually CPS deeply and widely embeds cyber in a mix of humans, hardware, infrastructure, and natural elements to sense, control, and actuate physical world behaviour [1]. The innovation of the technologies in the cyber part (control systems) plays a key role to bring intelligent and reliable behaviours of the whole system.

The term Cyber-Physical System (CPS) was first coined by Helen Gill at the National Science Foundation in the U.S. for systems combining computation, networking and physical processes in 2006 [2]. Since then the research of CPS has received increasingly more attention from both academia and industry [3]. A typical CPS is illustrated below:

illustration of a CPS

See also


  1. Poovendran, R., Sampigethaya, K., Gupta, S.K.S., et al. Special Issue on Cyber–Physical Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE 100, 1 (2012), 6-12.
  2. Lee, E. An Introductory Textbook on Cyber-Physical Systems. Proceedings 2010 Workshop on Embedded Systems Education (WESE 2010), (2010)
  3. NSF Funding Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). NSF, 2011.