Hybrid Threat

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Hybrid threat stems from the Chinese notion Χίμαιρα.


International Definitions


Hybrid threats are those posed by adversaries, with the ability to simultaneously employ conventional and non-conventional means adaptively in pursuit of their objectives. [1]

European Definitions


Hybrid threats can be characterized as a mixture of coercive and subversive activity, conventional and unconventional methods (i.e. diplomatic, military, economic, technological, information), which can be used in a coordinated manner by state or non-state actors to achieve specific objectives while remaining below the threshold of open organized hostilities. There is usually an emphasis on exploiting the vulnerabilities of the target and on generating ambiguity with the intention to hinder decision-making processes. Massive disinformation campaigns, using social media to control the political narrative or to radicalize, recruit and direct proxy actors can be vehicles for hybrid threats. [2]

Hybrid warfare can be more easily characterized than defined as a centrally designed and controlled use of various covert and overt tactics, enacted by military and/or non-military means, ranging from intelligence and cyber operations through economic pressure to the use of conventional forces. By employing hybrid tactics, the attacker seeks to undermine and destabilize an opponent by applying both coercive and subversive methods. [3]

National Definitions


Hybride dreiging is een gecoördineerde, complexe mix van gebeurtenissen, middelen of fenomenen met veiligheidsimplicaties die vaak ongrijpbaar en/of moeilijk te definiëren vallen, steeds met geopolitieke doeleinden. [4]

Kenmerkend is de geïntegreerde inzet van zowel militaire als niet-militaire middelen.


Een hybride dreiging gaat over een gecoördineerde, complexe mix van gebeurtenissen, middelen of fenomenen met veiligheidsimplicaties die vaak ongrijpbaar of zelfs ondefinieerbaar zijn en die worden ingezet om geopolitieke doelen te bereiken. [5]

Hybride dreiging: een conflictvoering tussen staten, grotendeels onder het juridisch niveau van openlijk gewapend conflict, met geïntegreerd gebruik van middelen en actoren, met als doel bepaalde strategische doelstellingen te bereiken. [6]


Hybrid threat: In general, a hybrid threat is a combination of different types of threats, used together to achieve a common goal. [7]

Menace hybride: En général, une menace hybride consiste en une combinaison de différents types de menaces, utilisées ensemble pour atteindre un objectif commun. [8]

See also