Climate System

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The definitions below refer to Adaptation to Climate Change.


European Definitions


The climate system is defined by the dynamics and interactions of five major components: atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, land surface, and biosphere. [1]

Climate system dynamics are driven by both internal and external forcing, such as volcanic eruptions, solar variations, or human-induced modifications to the planetary radiative balance, for instance via anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and/or land-use changes.

RESIN project

The RESIN project [2] gives the following definition:

The climate system is the highly complex system consisting of five major components: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere, the lithosphere and the biosphere, and the interactions between them. [3]

Other International Definitions

National Definitions


Sistem iklim adalah sistem yang sangat kompleks yang terdiri daripada lima komponen utama: atmosfera, hidrosfera, cryosphere, permukaan tanah dan biosfera, dan interaksi di antara mereka. [4]

United States

Climate system is the system, consisting of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere, determining the earth's climate as the result of mutual interactions and responses to external influences (forcing).. [5]

Standard Definition

Discussion Topic

See also


  1. European Climate Adaptation Platform (CLIMATE-ADAPT) Glossary
  3. Mach, K.J., S. Planton and C. von Stechow (eds.). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Annex II: Glossary. [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 117-130.
  4. Jabatan Meteorologi Malaysia
  5. American Meteorological Society (AMS) - glossary